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Mountain reedbucks inhabit three separate geographic areas, each containing a recognized subspecies. Southern mountain reedbucks are found from the eastern Cape Province to southeastern Botswana. Throughout history some populations have disappeared in this range for various reasons. The East African subspecies (Chanler's Mountain Reedbuck) is found in Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Sudan, and Ethiopia. The West African subspecies has only been found in Cameroon.

The Mountain Reedbuck is a medium-sized, graceful and shy antelope.  Their natural habitat is, as their name suggests, mountainous terrain and they can be seen on mountain slopes feeding or resting in the shade and camouflage of the thick bush. They are predominantly grazers, and water is an important habitat requirement

When it runs with its characteristic rocking gait, with tail up, it shows the white underside.  They occur in small herds of three to eight individuals though up to 30 have been seen together.  The larger groups seem to be temporary as they will disperse into smaller units when disturbed young rams are forced out of herds to form bachelor groups until sexual maturity and readiness to challenge the right to mating opportunities of territorial rams.  Usually there is only one adult ram in a family group.